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Hematuria is the medical condition where the patient notices blood in their urine. The level of blood cells in the urine varies with individuals (gross or microscopic).

Gross hematuria is when blood is visible to the naked eye while urinating. In microscopic hematuria, the blood cells are in less proportion and can only be detected with a microscope.

Although the exact cause of hematuria is unknown it is suspected to be the warning sign for infections, urinary tract cancer or kidney stone, as it affects any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureter, bladder, prostate and urethra.

What are the common causes of hematuria?

Although it is common to see blood in urine at times, hematuria is often not the symptom of the specific disease. Rather it is the warning symptom for another urological disorder, including:

  • Bladder Cancer

  • Kidney Cancer

  • Prostate Cancer

  • Ureteral Cancer

  • Urethral Cancer

  • Urinary Stone Disease

  • Urinary Tract Infection

  • Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection)

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (Enlarged Prostate)

  • Renal (Kidney) Disease

  • Radiation or Chemical Induced Cystitis (Bladder Irritation)

  • Injury to the Urinary Tract

  • Prostatitis (Prostate Infection)

  • Exercise Hematuria 

How is hematuria diagnosed?

Gross hematuria normally does not need a diagnostic test as the blood in the urine can be seen with the naked eye. The most common way to diagnose microscopic hematuria is through a routine urine test, usually a urine dipstick test.

What additional tests are needed?

Once the abnormal level of blood cells has been determined by the urine test, the doctor may advise additional testing, beginning with a careful examination of the urinary tract, including urinary sediment analysis with a microscope.

Additional tests include image testing, such as x ray tests of the kidneys and ureter to determine the presence of kidney tumors and other abnormal mass, including kidney stones. A renal ultrasound test or CT (computerized tomography) scan may also be recommended with the x ray to help detect small-sized masses in the kidneys.

To evaluate the bladder, the doctor may recommend a minimally invasive cystoscopy.

How will hematuria be treated?

Treatment will be based on a physician's evaluation of the patient's condition, symptoms and medical history along with the cause of the hematuria.

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