Paediatric Surgery deals with the surgical care of newborn babies, infants and children to the age of 18 years. This branch is highly specialized, not only because one has to handle very delicate and miniature tissues, but also because it requires a great deal of patience, compassion and understanding to handle the little babies and their very anxious parents.
The majority of urological clinical problems in children are distinct and in many ways different to those in adults. The aim of this work is to outline a practical and preliminary approach to pediatric urological problems.
For quite some time, pediatric urology has informally developed, expanded, matured and established its diverse body of knowledge and expertise and may now be ready to distinguish itself from its parent specialties.
Pediatric urology is the diagnosis and treatment of congenital (i.e., present at birth) and acquired urological conditions and diseases in children. Pediatric urologists treat conditions of the male reproductive tract (e.g., undescended testicle) and the male and female urinary tracts (e.g., urinary tract infection).
The urinary tract consists of the organs that filter the blood and form urine (kidneys), the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys (ureters), the organ that stores urine (bladder), and the tube that carries urine from the bladder and removes it from the body (urethra).
Abnormalities of the kidneys and bladder account for 40% of surgical cases in children. Operations are done for both congenital and acquired clinical conditions of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra in children including in newborn as well as older children.